Corneal Transplants; What Are They

Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK)
This type of cornea transplant replaces the full thickness of the cornea with a healthy and clear donor tissue and is required when a cornea has been severely damaged or disease, and where no other option of surgery remains. PK can be carried out under local or general anaesthetic and takes about one to two hours to complete. During surgery, a central 8mm button of cornea is removed and a similar sized button of the donor cornea is stitched in with tiny stitches. After surgery vision will stay misty and/or cloudy for a few days and will improve gradually for about 12-18 months. Individual stitches may be removed from three months after the surgery, but complete stitch removal is not performed until at least one year after the surgery. Following surgery, and once fully healed, around 75% of transplant recipients have adequate vision to drive legally, but to get the best results from vision, glasses or contact lenses may need to be worn.

Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK)
This type of cornea transplant is a partial thickness transplant and replaces the front 99% of the cornea with a donor cornea. Unlike penetrating keratoplasty, DALK keeps the back layers of the cornea, the Descemet’s membrane and endothelium layer, in place and it is used as an alternative to PK, when these back layers of the cornea are healthy. The surgery itself is carried out much the same as PK, but just less donor cornea is used. Again, stiches are used to keep the donor tissue in place, but as only part of the cornea has been replaced, healing and visual recovery are usually quicker than what are seen with PK. To get the best vision following surgery, glasses or contact lenses may need to be worn.

Endothelial Keratoplasty (EK)
This type of cornea transplant is a partial thickness transplant and replaces only the back layers of the cornea. Unlike to above two transplants, EK can be further split into two methods; Descemet’s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and Descemet’s membrane endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK). Both DSEK and DMEK are very similar and the procedure to carry them out is the same, but DMEK differs as the donor cornea tissue does not include any stromal layer tissue. The consultant ophthalmic surgeon will decide which surgery is necessary, depending on the damage or disease that is present. EK transplants are used when there is a problem at the back of the cornea. To help keep the cornea clear, the cells lining the inside of the cornea pump fluid to stop the cornea from swelling, if there are not enough cells, due to disease or damage, then the cornea starts to swell and vision will become cloudy. The surgery is carried out differently when compared to PK and DALK; it will again be under either local or general anaesthetic but a very small incision is made between the coloured and white part of the eye. The eye surgeon removes the dysfunctional endothelial cells through this opening and a disc of donor cells is placed back inside the eye. The donor endothelial cells are pressed to the back of the cornea with an air bubble and the patient will need to lie still for about 1 hour following surgery to make sure the air bubble stays in place. Occasionally, a few stitches to close the incision may be needed. Vision will stay misty or cloudy for a few days, and will get better over 3-4 months, as with all types of corneal transplants glasses or contact lenses may be needed after surgery to get the best results from vision

How To Prepare For Cataract Surgery

1) Glasses
If you are having both eyes treated it is likely both eyes with be done on separate days, roughly 1 week apart. This means once the first eye is treated, you will have a good eye and a bad eye, so you may struggle with your vision in this time. The best thing to do if you do find this difficult, is to ask your optician to remove the lens in your glasses for the eye that has been treated, they can leave it empty or they may be able to put in a prescription free lens.
You can also wear a contact lens in the untreated eye to help, but remember depending on the type of contact lenses you wear, these must be left out for a certain time before surgery, this can vary from 24 hours to 2-3 weeks, so it may be best to arrange for some glasses to have on standby.
2) Cleaning Your Eyes
You won’t be able to get water in your eyes for about 2 weeks following the surgeries, this is to avoid getting an infection. You may find your eyes get sticky from the prescribed drops you will be using after surgery, so you might want to clean your eyes. It is a good idea to buy what you need to do this before you have the surgery. You will need a clean bowl, cooled boiled water and some gauze. Boil the water and pour it into the clean bowl and let it cool. Once cooled you can soak the gauze in the water, ring it out and very gently wipe over the eyes and eyelashes, being very careful not to push on the eyes or drag the skin.
3) Eating
Most patients will be awake during cataract surgery and will have local anaesthetic to numb the eye, therefore it is advised to eat a good meal and keep well hydrated before you come to the clinic/hospital for surgery. If you are going to be put to sleep using general anaesthetic or be sedated, then you will not be able to eat or drink before surgery, this can vary from 6-12 hours beforehand. Your eye clinic should advise you on eating prior to surgery, but also ask them to confirm this if you are unsure or have not been advised.
4) Transport Home
After surgery, you will not be able to drive yourself home so you must arrange for someone to collect you, whether this be a family member or friend or a taxi. Ideally it wouldn’t be recommended you take public transport as you may struggle getting around on this. Also, you may not be able to drive for several days after the surgeries, so it is always best to have someone that can drive you around or it’s a good excuse to put your feet up and rest.
5) Sunglasses
So, it may not be a sunny day when you have surgery and it may even be night time when you leave the clinic/hospital, but we would recommend you bring a pair of sunglasses. Even though it is likely that your eye that has been treated on will be covered, either by gauze or a plastic shield, you may find lights brighter than normal, such as the sun, car lights and street lights. Also, the sunglasses act as another shield to protect your eyes from dust, wind or any other debris that could get in your eyes which could potentially cause an infection.
6) Time Off Work
If you work, you will need to prepare taking some time off after the surgeries. This can depend on the type of job you do but can vary from 2 days to 1 week after each eye has been treated. When you return to work, you may need to take extra caution depending on your environment, for example if you work in a dusty atmosphere you will need to wear protective goggles for several weeks to protect your eyes. Speak to your ophthalmologist about the type of work you do and they will give the best advice on returning to work.
All of the above is only a guide and your eye doctor may give different advice to you as every patient and surgery is different and recommendations will be tailored to suit your surgery, lifestyle, and needs. Remember if you have any questions about preparing for surgery, contact your eye clinic/hospital before the day of the surgery.

Anti Aging Supplement Overview

Can an anti aging supplement really help you to achieve great health?Technology and medicine have come a long way. Frankly so many different drugs have come out recently that even regulating them for their intended use has become difficult. That makes it more difficult to select those which are beneficial for us and will do what they profess to be able to do.One such category that is somewhat confusing to the user is vitamins. In many cases, while vitamins are regulated by the FDA, those things which they say they can accomplish may or may not be well regulated and we need to further research the literature to ensure that they can achieve what they promise.Are there really any anti aging vitamins and what can they actually do for your body? Regular vitamins contain elements that your body actually requires to grow and to continue existence.

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Anti aging ingredients are not supplements per se. A supplement is defined as something that your body requires which in this case it does not. Your normal vitamins and minerals are things that your body needs in order to exist. They don’t need anti aging ingredients but they can do an incredibly good job in helping you to stay healthier and in keeping your body in better shape. Looking good is important and feeling good even more so.So can anti aging supplements really help you to achieve that?Scientifically speaking, there are some vitamins and substances that occur naturally that do offer you the means to stay fit, look younger and even keep your body in better physical shape for a longer time. These items are being researched and some have been found to be more than helpful in the overall scheme of nutrition; helping you feel younger as well as more fit and actually far more healthy.Substances which are technically not supplements, such as Resveratrol can be termed vitamins of a variety. Resveratrol is a natural substance that is found in the skin of certain types of grapes and is in wine and other products. It is more than beneficial in doing some real good for the body.Resveratrol can actually help to lower the instances of heart attack and stroke by making the heart healthier and can in fact make the body look better by keeping your skin, the largest organ of the body, in healthier and better shape.

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While these types of compounds are typically not known as vitamins, they do offer sound and medically documented assistance to your body in staying younger and staying younger looking. While anti aging supplements do exist, they generally come from natural sources that are also typically better for you when they receive minimal processing.One issue that is brought up is that some of these substances, unlike true vitamins are not well regulated. This means that the type and quality of the anti aging vitamins or supplements that you take should be well researched for good quality and high grade ingredients.In many cases, consider looking for the higher priced supplements and read the ingredients well to be sure that what you are getting is quality and not lower grade types of supplements.

Eye Conditions That Require Skill Ofan Eye Care Hospital

Eyes are the windows for any human being to the beautiful world. It is one of the most sensitive creations of nature and must be dealt with utmost care and compassion. Maintaining optimum vision should be the main priority of a human being. Proper attention should be devoted to the condition of the eyes and any diversion from the normal state should be brought to immediate notice of a certified specialist. The utmost importance of regular check up cannot be underestimated. It will ensure that your prescription stays updated, closely following the prevalent condition of the eyes. There are some conditions that normally do not show any early signs or symptoms, when they are in their initial stages. Only a routine checkup can rule out the probability of such a condition and help to avoid aggravation of the condition.

Routine eye checkup becomes mandatory once a person crosses 40 years of age, for preserving the eye-sight and maintaining it. There are many common symptoms that can be noticed in ageing adults which require expertise of some specialist in some good eye-care hospital to detect the problem on time. Some of these symptoms include difficulty in seeing objects that are at a closer distance or smaller prints, presence of tiny spots or specks that hover across the vision, entire area near the eye covered with cloudy areas, dryness, night blindness, redness, tearing, burning and itching. Apart from such problems, there can be eyelid problems as well, that include drooping of eyelids, inflamed eyelids, involuntary blinking and so on.

Headache can be also regarded as a symptom of eye problems and if it is not medicated on time then it can result in weakening of the eyes. Eye problems are also prevalent in children and the most common being astigmatism. Usually astigmatism goes undetected, which can cause further complications. Children can experience difficulty in reading or doing intricate work, squinting, frequent blinking and so on.

On some unfortunate events, Eye injuries could occur, which could cause unexpected loss of normal vision. They can include pain, flashing lights or loss of sight. Such situations can be regarded as medical emergencies and must be brought to the notice of a dedicated surgeon in some hospital who is capable of handling such traumatic situations and provide required aid on time with the help of skilled doctors and advanced technology.

Healthcare for Long-term Patients

Long-term care insurance is not right for everyone. For a small percentage of the population this coverage is an affordable and worthwhile type of insurance. Determining whether or not long-term care insurance is right for you won’t be the only task at hand; looking for scams will also be a concern.

As you get older, the need for assistance in your everyday life increases. Whether it is in-home care or residing in a nursing home for a few months you will most likely need some way to pay for these types of services. In order to maintain long-term care insurance you must pay for them each and every year until death. Many policies are canceled by policyholders that are on fixed incomes and are simply unable to pay for the increasing premiums as they get older. If the only funds you are receiving were those from Social Security or SSI, then it would be wise to not purchase a policy. Also, if you find that every day purchases and paying for utilities makes you stretch your budget to the limit, you probably should stay clear of this policy. This type of policy is only right for someone who has significant assets they want to preserve for their family, remain independent, or just to spare their family the expense of a nursing home bill.

Comparing policies can prove to be difficult because every company is selling a different combination of benefits and coverage. Many companies offer to pay a fixed amount for each day you receive care, while others will cover a percentage of the overall cost of care or supply a specified amount. Beware of these types of policies unless they offer inflation protection. You see, if they do not account for the increasing cost of nursing home costs, then you are stuck with a policy that really does you no good.

Just like a standard healthcare plan, you will have to receive services at designated locations. If you go outside of this network they will simply refuse to pay for any care that you receive. If you have any type of mental disease or nervous disorder then don’t expect many carriers to accept you (the one exception is Alzheimer’s). There are more restrictions in this type of insurance than any other health insurance.

If this type of policy is right for you, please make sure that the company is reputable. There are many individuals who thrive on the fact that not many people will make an informed decision when it comes to purchasing long-term health insurance. Be sure to read the fine print and find out everything you can about the policy before committing to a company and a long-term health insurance plan.